Friday, November 4, 2016

DARPA's Hacking Contest Will Pit Machines towards every different

The protection superior studies initiatives employer (DARPA), the branch of the branch of protection answerable for developing new technology for the military, will keep its Cyber Grand mission Aug. 4 in Las Vegas. the first-of-its-kind contest is designed to pit device against machine in what is being billed because the "world's first automated network defense match."
gadgets inclusive of clever televisions, wearable technology and even excessive-quit domestic home equipment that may be connected to the net aren't always designed with cybersecurity in thoughts. extra importantly, crucial related infrastructure consisting of site visitors lighting, utility structures and energy grids will be liable to cyberattacks, in line with DARPA. [11 Odd and Intriguing Smart Home Technologies]
To deal with these huge-scale vulnerabilities, it can be necessary to automate the procedure of identifying and solving software vulnerabilities, but the machines making the fixes have to carry out as well as human experts so that you can be effective safeguards, DARPA officers said.
"With the growth of the net of factors (IoT), cybersecurity wishes to conform to a in large part computerized, scalable manner," Rick Weiss, DARPA's director of strategic communications, wrote in an electronic mail to live science.
The Cyber Grand challenge next month coincides with the 24th DEF CON hacker convention, and the format of the competition will follow a acquainted pc safety game, known as "capture the Flag," this is generally performed by means of teams of people racing to discover a record blanketed on the others' network.
In this situation, programmers will step lower back and watch their machines autonomously compete against each other. every of the seven qualifying teams has already been presented $750,000 to prepare for the occasion, and they will vie for a proportion of nearly $4 million in prize cash on the Cyber Grand assignment.
The environment of the opposition won't be quite as complex because the actual-international net of factors; machines will run a unique operating device, "that is each the conventional gambling discipline of 'capture the Flag' and additionally consultant of the native code footprints of many low-energy [internet of things] devices," Weiss wrote. "First, we want to answer the existential question: Is it even possible and realistic to reliably automate this undertaking?"
The crew that wins the Cyber Grand task will go directly to pit its system against people in a DEF CON "capture the Flag" event the following day, DARPA officials stated.

New excessive-pace digital camera Is So rapid it may See Neurons Firing

a new form of ultrafast photography, called unmarried-shot compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), can capture a picosecond laser pulse journeying through the air. The researchers these days upgraded their CUP digital camera to obtain an improved image first-class (bottom photo). The top photo shows the photograph best they may obtain previously.
credit score: Liren Zhu, Jinyang Liang and Lihong V. Wang, Washington college in St. Louis
one of the fastest cameras within the global can now take higher snap shots than ever, even taking pictures neurons as they fireplace, in step with a new have a look at.
This upgrade should assist researchers study extra approximately how the mind works and a way to enhance combustion-engine fuel efficiency, the scientists stated.
The researchers previously evolved a "streak digicam" that would image at speeds of one hundred billion frames in keeping with 2d in a single publicity — quick sufficient to capture pulses of mild zipping via area. This device changed into the quickest obtain-simplest digital camera in the international, that means it wanted best to be had mild for imaging, rather than additional illumination from a  source which include a laser. [Photo Future: 7 High-Tech Ways to Share Images]
The scientists have now stepped forward on this approach, referred to as compressed ultrafast photography, boosting its resolution "by way of about 2.four times," stated have a look at senior creator Lihong Wang, an implemented physicist at Washington college in St. Louis. "that is a step above something that turned into already interesting."
of their contemporary paintings, the researchers began with a streak camera — an exceptionally fast form of digicam that measures how the intensity of a pulse of mild varies through the years. They next added a fashionable digital digital camera to their streak digital camera. Merging the statistics from the virtual digital camera and the streak digital camera helped decorate photograph reconstruction, producing images with higher resolution, progressed contrast and cleanser backgrounds, Wang stated.
With the upgraded device, the scientists captured snap shots of laser pulses each simply picoseconds or trillionths of a second long as they traveled thru the air. additionally they imaged the laser pulses as they swept across a printout of a toy automobile.
This digicam technology might be coupled with microscopes or telescopes, Wang said. He and his colleagues are in particular interested in the usage of it to observe neurons hearth.
"Neural alerts can propagate alongside nerves at speeds of over one hundred meters according to second (223 mph)," Wang instructed live science. "That type of speed is too high for any contemporary cameras to seize. we hope we will use our system to look at neural networks to recognize how the mind works."
The researchers additionally desire to use their upgrade to research ultrafast biochemical reactions that occur within cells, and to observe combustion "as a way to optimize fuel performance," Wang said. Washington college has applied for a patent for the generation and is looking for corporations to commercialize it, he added.

'soar 2nd' to Be added on New 12 months's Eve This yr

Revelers gets to celebrate New 12 months's Eve for a tiny bit longer than standard this yr.
A "leap 2nd" can be delivered to the sector's respectable clocks on Dec. 31 at 23 hours, fifty nine minutes and 59 seconds Coordinated well-known Time (UTC), which corresponds to 6:fifty nine:59 p.m. EST; the clocks will study 23:59:60 before ticking over to middle of the night. The goal is to maintain two extraordinary timescales in sync with every different.
The devices of time had lengthy been described primarily based on this planet's rotation relative to distant celestial our bodies. but that changed with the invention ofatomic clocks within the mid-twentieth century; scientists then decided to base the second on the natural vibrations of the cesium atom. [How to Build the Most Accurate Atomic Clocks (Video)]
these  timescales don't in shape up exactly, but. Measurements display that, because the moon's gravitational pull and other factors are steadily slowing Earth's spin, the rotation-primarily based scale loses between 1.five and a pair of milliseconds per day as compared to atomic time — that means the 2 diverge via a complete 2nd every 500 to 750 days.
leap seconds are a manner to make up for this difference. because 1972, the global Earth Rotation and Reference systems service (IERS) — the organisation that continues track of time for the world — has brought 26 soar seconds to atomic clocks, with the ultimate such insertion approaching June 30, 2015.
The aim is to preserve the two timescales inside 0.9 seconds of each other.
"we will easily alternate the time of an atomic clock, however it is not feasible to modify the Earth's rotational velocity to healthy the atomic clocks," officers with the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO), which continues the department of protection's grasp clock, stated — wryly, it would appear — in a announcement nowadays (July 6).
at the same time as Earth's rotation charge is slowing, the impact is pretty subtle.
"Confusion from time to time arises over the misconception that the occasional insertion of bounce seconds every few years suggests that the Earth must stop rotating within a few millennia," USNO officers wrote. "this is due to the fact some [people] mistake bounce seconds to be a degree of the fee at which the Earth is slowing. The 1-second increments are, but, symptoms of the accrued difference in time among the 2 systems."

synthetic Intelligence ought to help seize Alzheimer's Early

The devastating neurodegenerative circumstance Alzheimer's ailment is incurable, however with early detection, sufferers can are seeking remedies to slow the disease's progression, before some essential signs seem.  Now, through applying synthetic intelligence algorithms to MRI mind scans, researchers have developed a manner to routinely distinguish between patients with Alzheimer's and two early kinds of dementia that may be precursors to the memory-robbing disorder.
The researchers, from the VU university clinical center in Amsterdam, endorse the method ought to sooner or later permit automatic screening and assisted prognosis of numerous sorts of dementia, mainly in centers that lack skilled neuroradiologists.
moreover, the results, posted on line July 6 in the journal Radiology, show that the new system was able to classify the shape of dementia that sufferers were stricken by, using formerly unseen scans, with up to 90 percentage accuracy. [10 Things You Didn't Know About the Brain]
"The potential is the possibility of screening with these strategies so people at danger can be intercepted earlier than the ailment turns into apparent," stated Alle Meije Wink, a senior investigator inside the center's radiology and nuclear medicinal drug branch.
"I think only a few sufferers at the moment will accept as true with an final results predicted by using a gadget," Wink instructed live technological know-how. "What I envisage is a doctor getting a brand new experiment, and as it's far loaded, software program might be able to mention with a positive amount of self belief [that] that is going to be an Alzheimer's affected person or [someone with] some other form of dementia."
Detection strategies
similar system-getting to know strategies have already been used to stumble on Alzheimer's ailment; in those implementations, the strategies had been used on structural MRI scans of the mind that can display tissue loss related to the disorder.
however scientists have lengthy recognized that the brain undergoes purposeful changes earlier than those structural modifications kick in, Wink stated. Positron emission tomography (pet) imaging has been a famous approach for tracking functional changes, but it's far invasive and steeply-priced, he delivered.
as a substitute, Wink and his colleagues used an MRI approach called arterial spin labeling (ASL), which measures perfusion — the procedure of blood being absorbed right into a tissue — across the brain. The technique remains experimental, however it's miles noninvasive and relevant on modern-day MRI scanners.
preceding research have shown that humans with Alzheimer's generally show decreased perfusion (or hypoperfusion) in brain tissue, which leads to insufficient deliver of oxygen and vitamins to the mind.
schooling the gadget
the usage of so-called perfusion maps from patients at the scientific center, Wink's crew skilled its machine to differentiate amongst patients who had Alzheimer's, slight cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD).
The brain scans of 1/2 of the 260 individuals were used to teach the device, and the opposite half of have been then used to check if the gadget ought to distinguish amongst special situations whilst searching at formerly unseen MRI scans.
The researchers discovered that their technique may want to distinguish among Alzheimer's and SCD with ninety percentage accuracy, and between Alzheimer's and MCI with eighty two percentage accuracy. however, the machine became all at once negative at distinguishing among MCI and SCD, attaining an accuracy of handiest 60 percentage, the researchers located. [10 Ways to Keep Your Mind Sharp]
Tantalizingly, preliminary outcomes suggest the method may be capable to differentiate among instances of MCI that development to Alzheimer's and people that don't, the researchers stated.
inside the observe, there were handiest 24 MCI cases with observe-up statistics to signify whether each patient's situation advanced to Alzheimer's, with 12 in every class. therefore, splitting them into  groups — one to educate the machine and every other to test its potential to classify the circumstance in unseen scans — turned into now not possible, the researchers said.
In a initial evaluation the machine changed into educated on all 24 cases leading to education accuracies of round eighty percentage while classifying those businesses and separating them from the alternative major organizations.
but with out a separate prediction institution, it became not possible to check the device on unseen scans, the researchers said. combined with the small pattern length in the examine, Wink said, it is too early to attract any company conclusions, though the preliminary effects are encouraging.
real-international programs
Ender Konukoglu, an assistant professor of biomedical photograph computing at ETH-Zurich, a science and engineering college in Switzerland, said combining gadget learning and ASL is novel and could have good sized medical programs, however extra needs to be completed to validate the approach.
The maximum precious application is the ability to distinguish among MCI instances that progress to Alzheimer’s and people that don’t, but the sample length on this look at is simply too small to assess the reliability for such use, he stated. "large cohorts would possibly display that ASL imaging combined with system gaining knowledge of is able to classify the MCI organizations, however until then, it is tough to talk approximately the scientific applicability of the techniques offered here,” Konukoglu informed stay technology.
Wink agreed that one manner to improve accuracy might be to use bigger data units. however the technique his group is operating on is creating device-gaining knowledge of techniques that could use a broad type of information from distinct imaging devices, he said.
Christian Salvatore, a researcher on the Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and physiology of the Italian national research Council, said the studies is innovative however does not introduce any new strategies. it's miles virtually an application of a famous machine-studying toolbox for neuroimaging analysis to ASL, he said.
but the category performances are precise, Salvatore said, and the approach also helps become aware of mind areas of interest to docs while diagnosing these situations. this is something many researchers using gadget gaining knowledge of for neuroimage evaluation forget, he stated.
"Clinicians want to 'see' results — they do not accept as true with a black container that handiest returns the expected label for a affected person," he advised live technological know-how. "So, maps of the most critical voxels [3D pixels] for type are pretty essential."

Mudskipper robot Mimics ancient Land Animals' First 'Steps'

A robot modeled after the mudskipper fish that "walks" brief distances over rocks and dirt is supporting scientists understand how animals moved thousands and thousands of years ago, when they first emerged from the water and transitioned to stroll on land.
Observations of the African mudskipper helped scientists create the mechanical "MuddyBot," which wriggles over sand the usage of limbs that resemble a mudskipper's effective fins and tail.
A muscular tail in the earliest land animals may additionally have played a extra critical function of their locomotion than previously notion. In a brand new study, researchers found that whilst fin "taking walks" is an effective way for the mudskipper and MuddyBot to scooch across flat surfaces, an undulating push from a tail is useful for ascending sandy slopes. [Video: Unusual Fish that Can Walk & Breathe Hold Clues to Animal Evolution]
Animals that walk on land today developed when early tetrapods — creatures with backbones and four limbs — shifted from their aquatic environments masses of thousands and thousands of years in the past. inside the method, their limbs adapted to the brand new challenges of helping and propelling their frame weight over rocks, dust and sand.
And variations within the surfaces these tetrapods probably faced stimulated scientists to analyze how that could have affected the way those ancient creatures moved.
An uphill climb
Mudskippers are recognized for his or her capability to navigate outside of the water the use of their fins as makeshift "legs." The researchers determined how mudskippers tour over loosely packed sand, and found that in the event that they boom the slope of the granular floor, the mudskippers' fins come to be less powerful; they as an alternative rely greater on their tails for momentum, and to prevent themselves from slipping downhill.
To similarly explore how an early tetrapod may have navigated on land, a team of biologists and engineers collaborated to build MuddyBot. They modeled it after the mudskipper's body plan, giving it  forelimbs and a tail appendage so it can mimic the fish's bodily abilities as a "walker."
at the same time as the mudskipper is a dwelling version of how early land animals might also have moved, MuddyBot lets in the scientists to differ the parameters of its moves, to better understand the motions of the one of a kind limbs, and to examine how they work relative to every other.
just like the animal that inspired its layout, MuddyBot also had issue ascending slopes the usage of best its forelimbs, and will climb effectively best with a boost from its "tail," the study authors discovered.
The earliest land animals might have in all likelihood taken a number of their first steps on sandy, sloping beaches, the researchers stated. Their observations of mudskippers and the assessments with MuddyBot suggest that primitive tetrapods would also have needed to propel themselves with their tails.
This clue to early locomotion has been "hiding in plain sight," in keeping with take a look at co-creator Richard Blob, a professor of biological sciences at Clemson university in South Carolina. Blob stated in a statement that the role of the tail in land locomotion — largely overlooked till now — may also had been an vital issue as animals transitioned to lifestyles out of water, an existing feature that helped to propel them into their ordinary, new habitat.

Are men genuinely higher game enthusiasts Than Gals?

despite the fact that girls now make up nearly half of all video game gamers, the gaming network remains, in some approaches, opposed toward an instance, the GamerGate controversy, which started in 2014 and involved a harassment marketing campaign against outstanding girl gamers, newshounds and designers, pondered a longstanding undercurrent of misogyny and sexism inside the community. In a few instances, folks who challenged the sexism found themselves threatened with rape or death.
There’s additionally the long-held stereotype that guys are really higher game enthusiasts than women. ladies gamers are frequently perceived as incompetent players who aren’t in reality interested by the games but as a substitute sign up to get interest. If a woman gamer does play properly, she’s frequently derided as a hacker – a person who cheats to advantage an advantage – because “there's no way a girl may be that excellent.”
In a latest study, we got down to observe whether or not men certainly make better gamers than ladies and, if so, what drove the gender overall performance gap. specifically, we desired to evaluate how quickly ladies and men leveled up in massively Multiplayer on line (mmorpg) video games, that are on-line worlds where thousands of gamers increase characters, make friends, be a part of organizations, whole quests and slay dragons together.
If guys are honestly better gamers than ladies, they need to increase to higher tiers in the equal amount of play time. however if they don’t progress any faster, this finding would help refute one of the most pervasive stereotypes that continue to exist inside the gaming network.
getting to the following degree
Our studies used nameless server facts from over 10,000 males and females in  MMOs, “EverQuest II” in the united states of america and “Chevaliers' Romance III” in China. We knew each player’s actual gender via their account registration information.
while gamers end quests and kill monsters in MMOs, they earn revel in factors. whilst enjoy factors attain a threshold, the player ascends to the following “stage,” which unlocks new capabilities, talents and get right of entry to to new content. As in maximum video games, stages indicate a player’s development.
obviously, gamers spending a lot of time in the game are likely to reach high tiers. that is why the rate of leveling up, in preference to the level itself, measures overall performance in our have a look at.
earlier than attending to our findings, we want to factor out a couple of things we took into consideration. First, players who had reached the pinnacle stage in the video games have been excluded in our analyses. because pinnacle-level players couldn’t advance any similarly, their fee of leveling up turned into basically 0. We removed these players to keep away from confounding our analyses, but this also intended that we were now not capable of degree gender differences among the most superior gamers.
second, our analysis identified that the rate of leveling up slows down as players development. as an example, it might take lots greater time and effort for a stage 60 participant to degree up than a level 30 player. therefore, our analysis compared apples to apples by means of evaluating players' overall performance most effective against others who had been at the identical degree.
opposite to the stereotype, we observed that participant gender itself does not cause overall performance variations. as a substitute, the notion of ladies as terrible game enthusiasts is fueled by using different factors. for instance, we determined that women spent less time gambling overall than men and chose extra assistive character instructions, consisting of clergymen, who fare higher recuperation organization contributors than combating on their very own. whilst we took such factors into consideration by way of statistically controlling them within the analyses, the gender overall performance gap disappeared; women advanced as a minimum as rapid as guys did in each games.
We also found out that one of a kind players are inquisitive about one-of-a-kind aspects of MMOs, and some of those variations may correlate with gender. There’s a few empirical proof that men have a tendency to consciousness more on success in video video games – leveling up hastily, gaining in-game popularity and competing towards others – whilst ladies are drawn to social interactions, whether or not it’s supporting other players or forming lengthy-term relationships.
This indicates that men should increase faster than ladies. but, we determined the opposite: women advanced as a minimum as rapid as guys did. So deliberating distinctive play motivations (which we have been not able to do in this take a look at’s analysis) likely simplest strengthens our conclusions.
past video video games
The stereotype that women are inferior game enthusiasts isn't only fake, however could also make ladies greater without problems discouraged and less probable to play within the first region. Of route, this gender performance stereotype exists in a number of different contexts. in the software improvement community GitHub, for example, girls are perceived as worse coders than men.
Our studies has high-quality implications for this crucial social problem. studies have shown that video video games can be an essential gateway to technology, era, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. If stereotypes approximately women and girls are preventing them from playing, then it is able to doubtlessly make contributions to preexisting gender inequality and stereotyping in these fields.
One approach to managing this issue is to sell stereotype-loose gaming reports for ladies and ladies thru lady-supportive gaming groups, inclusive of the PMS extended family, one of the oldest and maximum renowned female-oriented gaming groups in the global. scholars which include Gabriela Richard at Pennsylvania nation college have determined that contributors of these communities are greater confident and understand themselves as higher gamers.
recreation designers can also help. they have the capability to construct the video games to cause them to less opposed and greater welcoming to female gamers. as an instance, revolt games set up the Tribunal, a system that permits the participant community to study pronounced awful behaviors from fellow players, and then vote on whether to punish the wrongdoer. Banned players also get a “reform card” with the info of the offense, as well as judgments from the Tribunal. to this point, the Tribunal has extensively reduced on-line harassment.
while programs like Tribunal are a starting point in the large conflict to end gender stereotypes, our findings will hopefully allow girl game enthusiasts to realize that, when it comes to inherent talent, they’re on a stage playing discipline.
Cuihua Shen, Professor of communication, university of California, Davis and Rabindra Ratan, Assistant Professor of verbal exchange, Michigan state college

Stingray robot makes use of light-Activated Rat Cells to Swim

a brand new robotic stingray can swim with assist from an surprising source: muscle cells that were taken from rat hearts, a brand new take a look at finds.
expertise the way to build machines from coronary heart cells ought to cause scientists being capable of construct whole dwelling artificial hearts from muscle cells that would act greater like natural hearts, the researchers stated.
Stingrays and related fish have flat our bodies with lengthy wing-like fins. those fins undulate in waves that ripple from the front of the fins to the returned, strength-green motions that assist these fish waft via water. [The 6 Strangest Robots Ever Created]
Researchers sought to construct a robotic that emulates the stingray's performance and maneuverability. whilst examine senior creator kit Parker, a bioengineer at Harvard university, tested stingrays, he noted that the thrashing of their wings resembles the thrashing of hearts, which inspired him to apply rat coronary heart-muscle cells, he said.
The scientists started with skeletons that mimicked the form of stingrays that have been product of gold, which become selected for its chemically inert nature. those skeletons have been then blanketed with a thin layer of stretchy plastic and a thicker frame of silicone rubber. at the pinnacle of the robotic, the scientists located muscle cells from rat hearts. when stimulated, those cells contracted, pulling the fins downward.
The scientists desired to preserve their robot light, in order that they desired to keep away from weighing it down with a 2nd layer of cells to tug the fins returned up. alternatively, they designed the skeleton in a shape that shops some of the strength used to tug the fins down and releases it while the robotic's cells loosen up, permitting the fins to rise, they said.
The robot's cells had been additionally genetically engineered to react to mild. The researchers used pulses of mild to influence the robot to the left or right, and changed the wavelengths of light to manipulate its velocity. The scientists were able to control the robotic nicely sufficient to manual it thru a simple impediment path, with the machine swimming at a pace of about zero.06 inches (1.5 millimeters) in line with 2d over a distance of about 9.85 inches (250 mm).
Containing about 2 hundred,000 rat heart-muscle cells, the robot measures zero.63 inches (1.6 centimeters) lengthy and weighs just 10 grams (0.35 oz). The robot swims in a liquid this is loaded with sugar that serves as gas, the researchers said.
"it's alive, but it is not an organism — it can't replicate, it can not reproduce," Parker told stay technology "We make them in batches of five or six, and that they live approximately a week, perhaps much less."
Parker's goal with this studies "is to build substitute organs for unwell youngsters," he said. "ultimately we need to construct an entire coronary heart. we're already looking at constructing a robot based totally off some other marine lifestyles-shape to check our ability set a bit extra."

'Bomb robot' Kills Dallas Shooter: How Police Did It

A suspect in the previous day's (July 7) Dallas taking pictures — throughout which 5 cops had been killed and seven officials were injured — died after police deployed a far off-managed bomb-disposal robotic wearing an explosive device.
Dallas Police chief David Brown defined during a press convention that police sent the robotic in after negotiations with the suspect broke down and he exchanged gunfire with officers.
"We saw no other option however to use our bomb robotic and area a device on its extension for it to detonate in which the suspect was," Brown told reporters, including that police showed quickly after the explosion that the suspect had died. [5 Surprising Ways Drones Could Be Used in the Future]
The police considered different options for subduing the suspect, Brown stated, however the ones could have required putting officials "in grave chance."
Robots which might be able to managing or disarming explosives have end up a more commonplace sight in police departments in latest years, because of a defense department initiative called the 1033 application, which redistributes surplus navy gadget. about two hundred regulation enforcement businesses — federal, country and neighborhood — across the U.S. have at the least one so-referred to as "bomb robotic" supplied through the 1033 software, according to a 2015 file posted with the aid of the middle for the examine of the Drone at Bard university.
at the same time as the U.S. army has used drones across the world as far off bombers, this could be the first instance of a U.S. police pressure's robot killing a suspect, stated Peter W. Singer, a political scientist and strategist for new the usa, a non-partisan suppose tank addressing public coverage troubles.
Singer stated in a tweet that he had heard of U.S. troops in Iraq using robots in a manner much like the Dallas situation — changed to deliver explosives. at the same time as engaging in an interview for his e book "wired for struggle: The Robotics Revolution and struggle within the twenty first Century" (Penguin Books, 2009), he learned of an incident wherein soldiers duct-taped an anti-personnel mine to a sort of surveillance robotic called a MARCBot, sending the system into an alley after an rebel.
Robots in law enforcement are most commonly related to bomb disposal, however police have extensively utilized the devices to reply to situations deemed too risky for human beings.
In 2012, police in Greensboro, North Carolina, used a robot geared up with an audio and video link to speak with an armed suspect. the man had barricaded himself inside a house after firing pictures on the officers. Police later subdued the person and took him into custody, Police: The regulation Enforcement mag said.
officers in Richland County, Ohio, used a robot to monitor the location of a theft suspect at some stage in a 9-hour standoff in 2014. They later used the robotic to spray the suspect with tear gasoline, allowing officials to safely input the constructing.
And throughout a 2015 standoff in San Jose, California, police used a bomb-disposal robot to supply a cellphone — and a pizza — to a person threatening suicide on a limited-access highway overpass, said IEEE Spectrum.
On Friday morning (July eight), a regulation enforcement source recognized the suspect inside the Dallas shooting as Micah Xavier Johnson of Mesquite, Texas, consistent with a document with the aid of CBS neighborhood news in Dallas/castle worth. Brown stated in a announcement that during negotiations with police, Johnson affirmed he become not affiliated with any business enterprise and that he acted on my own.

Hillary Clinton Controversy: How Do e mail Servers paintings?

placed clearly, an e mail server is "an utility or laptop in a network whose sole reason is to behave as a digital publish office," in step with those servers are designed to receive emails from human beings's computers and mobile gadgets over a community and supply those messages to other e mail servers, and vice versa.
extra extensively, a server is a key detail of a laptop-gadget structure known as a client-server model. A server host — a pc that runs one or greater server packages — stocks its assets with a couple of "patron" devices, which include computers, drugs and cellular telephones. these assets can be inside the shape of databases or files, or offerings together with printing or software packages. [10 Technologies That Will Transform Your Life]
With an electronic mail server, these resources are devoted to sending emails, a standardized layout for sending textual content and files over the net. they may be created in an electronic mail patron (a application walking on a patron device it's designed to compose and send emails) and consist of two parts: The header consists of facts on things like when the email become sent, its "issue" line, and who sent the e-mail and who is receiving it. The message frame includes the real textual content of the e-mail. documents can also be attached to the email.
"just like all facts [that travels] via the net, an email is likewise damaged into smaller packets. whilst the sender clicks the send button, all the packets are uploaded to a critical computer (the e-mail server) that hosts the e-mail provider," in keeping with a document on
how it works
these e mail servers may be controlled with the aid of employers to run their very own, in-residence e-mail offerings; via net-based totally services together with Gmail or Yahoo Mail; or, as in Clinton's case via a private character. once an email reaches the sender's e-mail server, it then has to relay the packets of information to any other server, the one imparting e-mail services for the recipient.
nearly all email-host machines virtually run  specific server packages, in keeping with An SMTP (easy mail switch protocol) server handles outgoing mail, even as a POP3 (publish office protocol) server or an IMAP (short for net mail get right of entry to protocol) server handles incoming messages.
After the email client uploads an electronic mail, the SMTP server seems at the section of the recipient's e-mail deal with after the "@" sign, referred to as the domain call, to determine wherein to ship the message. If the domain name is similar to the sender's, then the SMTP server truly fingers the message to the POP3 or IMAP server on the identical host. [The Top 10 Revolutionary Computers]
If the domains are distinctive, the SMTP server contacts a website call server (DNS), the net's equal of a phone e-book. A DNS has a directory of domain names and interprets them to net protocol (IP) addresses. The SMTP server asks the DNS server for the IP address for the recipient's domain; with this facts, the SMPT server can then connect to the server of the recipient e mail carrier and pass the message throughout.
as soon as emails are on the right server, they simply need to be delivered lower back to the client device. To do this, the e-mail client connects to the POP3 server and troubles commands saying the customer wants to down load all splendid emails stored at the server for the user in question, signified with the aid of the first half of of someone's electronic mail cope with.
Now what?
The POP3 server will generally require authentication details, along with a password, before it passes the messages to the patron. most POP3 servers then delete the messages as soon as a consumer has downloaded them. this means, in case your e-mail system makes use of a POP3 server, you normally can not take a look at your mail from any other tool as soon as it has been downloaded to a patron tool.
that is why IMAP servers had been brought. not like POP3 servers, IMAP servers keep copies of all emails at the server, because of this you can test your email from any vicinity with a web connection. because your emails are saved on a server, although, IMAP services tend to be slower and frequently have size limits.
To complicate things further, Microsoft additionally has a proprietary e-mail server technology referred to as change. because Microsoft products are so general at big organizations, many huge agencies use alternate to run their corporation systems. alternate makes use of its own protocol, called messaging utility programming interface (MAPI) however also has help for POP3, IMAP and SMTP servers.

Robots may want to Hack Turing test by keeping Silent

The Turing test, the imperative evaluation designed to decide if some thing is a pc or a human, might also have a fatal flaw, new research indicates.
The check presently can't determine if someone is talking to any other person or a robot if the individual being interrogated actually chooses to live silent, new studies shows.
at the same time as it's now not news that the Turing check has flaws, the new study highlights just how confined the check is for answering deeper questions about synthetic intelligence, stated take a look at co-writer Kevin Warwick, a pc scientist at Coventry university in England. [Super-Intelligent Machines: 7 Robotic Futures]
"As machines have become more and more shrewd, whether they are really thinking and whether we need to present them responsibilities are starting to turn out to be very serious questions," Warwick informed live science. "manifestly, the Turing take a look at isn't always the one that could tease them out."
Imitation sport
The now-well-known Turing test turned into first described by using British laptop scientist Alan Turing in 1950 to deal with questions of whilst and a way to decide if machines are sentient. The query of whether machines can assume, he argued, is the wrong one: If they could skip off as human in what he termed the imitation game, that is right sufficient.
The check is straightforward: positioned a machine in a single room, a human interrogator in some other, and feature them talk to every other through a text-primarily based communique. If the interrogator can identify the machine as nonhuman, the device fails; otherwise, it passes. 
The simple and intuitive take a look at has turn out to be extremely influential in the philosophy of synthetic intelligence. but from the beginning, researchers determined flaws inside the check. For one, the sport specializes in deception and is overly centered on conversation as the metric of intelligence.
as an example, inside the Seventies, an early language-processing software referred to as ELIZA gave Turing check judges a run for their money by using imitating a psychiatrist's trick of reflecting questions again to the questioner. And in 2014, researchers fooled a human interrogator the usage of a "chatbot" named Eugene Goostman that was designed to pose as a 13-yr-old Ukrainian boy.
right to remain silent
Warwick turned into organizing Turing assessments for the 60th anniversary of Turing's demise while he and his colleague Huma Shah, additionally a pc scientist at Coventry university, observed some thing curious: from time to time, some of the AI chatbots broke and remained silent, difficult the interrogators.
"after they did so, the choose, each time, become now not able to mention it was a system," Warwick told stay technology. [The 6 Strangest Robots Ever Created]
by the policies of the check, if the decide cannot definitively discover the machine, then the machine passes the test. by way of this measure then, a silent bot or even a rock could pass the Turing test, Warwick said.
at the turn aspect, many humans get unfairly tarred as AI, Warwick said.
"Very regularly, human beings do get classified as being a device, because some people say silly matters," Warwick stated. In that scenario, if the device competitor definitely stayed silent, it'd win through default, he brought.
better assessments
The findings point to the want for an alternative to the Turing check, said Hector Levesque, an emeritus pc technological know-how professor on the university of Toronto in Canada, who become now not concerned with the brand new studies.
"the majority apprehend that, definitely, it's a check to look if you may fool an interrogator," Levesque advised live science. "it is now not too surprising that there are one-of-a-kind methods of fooling interrogators that don't have a good deal to do with AI or intelligence."
Levesque has evolved an alternative take a look at, which he dubbed the Winograd schema (named after pc technology researcher Terry Winograd, who first got here up with a number of the questions concerned in the take a look at).
The Winograd schema asks AI a chain of questions which have virtually accurate solutions. as an instance, it might ask, "The trophy could no longer match in the brown suitcase because it turned into too big (small). What became too big (small)?"
those queries are a far cry from the rich discussions of Shakespearean sonnets that Turing expected taking vicinity between AI and human beings.
"they may be mundane and absolutely nowhere close to as flashy as having a real verbal exchange with any individual," Levesque said.
but, answering effectively calls for an expertise of language, spatial reasoning, and context to figure out that trophies suit in suitcases.
And nonetheless other proposed alternatives to the Turing take a look at have centered on specific elements of human intelligence, including creativity.
The Lovelace take a look at to measure creativity calls for a robot to create a piece of inventive paintings in a particular style that meets the constraints given by a human decide. however even on this area, robots are gaining on mere mortals: earlier this 12 months, researchers created a "new Rembrandt" portray inside the fashion of the Dutch master, the usage of artificial intelligence and robot painters.

Corals 'Kiss' and salary struggle, New Underwater Microscope well-knownshows

Dubbed the Benthic Underwater Microscope (BUM), it is the first microscope to photo the seafloor and its inhabitants at this sort of small scale.
Researchers used the microscope to look at tiny coral polyps within the purple Sea and in Maui. They said in a new study that recording the miniscule organisms' sports provided extraordinary insight into the how the polyps live and behave.
lifestyles on a smaller scale
Coral reefs may be large, stony structures that host a diverse community of marine existence. however the character coral polyps that build them are small, tender-bodied animals — miniature mouths ringed with tentacles. To apprehend how reef colonies confront and manipulate threats which include pollutants and weather change and competitors together with algae, it is essential to no longer best observe the reef machine, but to investigate the interest of the polyps themselves, in step with look at co-writer Tali Treibitz.
Treibitz, an assistant professor at the school of Marine Sciences at the university of Haifa in Israel, advised live technological know-how that BUM made it feasible to study what the 1-millimeter-lengthy (zero.04 inches) polyps had been doing while still in their herbal environment — how they fed, competed with different corals and responded to colonization with the aid of dangerous algae.
BUM's design lets in the scientists to keep a distance of at least 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters) from the polyps they are observing, in order that they don't disrupt them. A tender, pliable lens — much like the lens inside the human eye — lets in the microscope to modify its focus quickly. And an exceptionally quick publicity time of much less than 1 microsecond allows do away with motion blur.
The gadget calls for  underwater housings. One holds the microscope — optics and illumination — while the opposite holds the laptop, a difficult drive for photograph seize and a screen that shows the microscope's images to the diver in real time.
For the team's research, it generally took approximately 5 to ten mins to installation the microscope, in line with observe co-creator Andrew Mullen, a doctoral pupil of ocean technological know-how on the Scripps group of Oceanography.
"once it turned into installation, the diver ought to take a chain of pics right away," Mullen instructed stay technological know-how. [Images: Colorful Corals of the Deep Barrier Reef]
The underwater microscope is even effective enough to seize pictures of the single-celled algae that stay internal corals, Mullen introduced.
"Kissing" corals
at some point of the pink Sea dives, BUM captured an uncommon conduct the various coral polyps that had never been observed earlier than: Polyps inside the identical colony that were near together could embrace every different at night time. Scientists aren't positive what the purpose of this behavior is, however they describe it as "kissing."
Divers also noted times of competitive behavior between colonies of various coral species.
BUM observations in Maui targeted reefs that suffered bleaching in 2015, while better-than-regular ocean temperatures prompted the corals to expel the symbiotic algae that lent them their coloration. Bleached reefs can regain their algae allies and recover if situations improve, but the 2015 bleaching event left the Maui reefs liable to harmful algae.
The scientists used BUM to look at the algae invasion on the reef as it befell, and learned that the algae observed a specific growth pattern, taking maintain in areas of the reef among the coral polyps, likely because those regions of the reef had been thinner and more prone after bleaching.
"people care about those huge ecosystems," Mullen said. "however if you want to attend to these ecosystems, you have to understand about the things which can be happening on the small scale which are impacting them."
Treibitz added that BUM should show to be an critical device for understanding big marine communities like coral reefs, with the aid of offering a window into the processes of their tiny builders.
"With our microscope, you could photograph the polyps live and in situ — seeing the whole thing they're doing to live on — and give a much wider view of what is surely taking place," she stated.

Microsoft Mines 'Minecraft' to observe synthetic Intelligence

inside the pixelated cube global of "Minecraft," players can create almost some thing their hearts choice. Now, Microsoft is using the popular international-constructing recreation to construct and test synthetic intelligence in the fictional surroundings.
Microsoft has made a platform for synthetic intelligence (AI) research using a modified model of "Minecraft" that becomes to be had to the general public following a confined launch to pick researchers. undertaking Malmo (previously referred to as undertaking AIX) allows anyone from bold novice coders to advanced pc scientists to build and take a look at artificial intelligence inside the "Minecraft" surroundings.
"WeꞋre seeking to put out the equipment in order to permit human beings to make progress on those simply, honestly hard research questions," Katja Hofmann, the venture's lead researcher, said in a Microsoft weblog put up announcing the discharge.
challenge Malmo isn't always designed to build AI that solves unique issues. as an alternative, the studies group hopes these equipment may be used to broaden a trendy synthetic intelligence able to "planning, reasoning, herbal language, and getting to know," Hofmann informed live science in an electronic mail.
"ꞌMinecraftꞌs open-ended nature makes it specially appealing for AI experimentation," Hofmann stated.
in the standard "Minecraft" game, gamers are free to move about, have interaction with the sector and build all way of unusual creations block through block. An energetic community round adjustments to the sport persists years after its original launch, and the great ability for creativity has even earned the sport a place in the series at the Museum of contemporary art in the big apple town.
the new challenge locations a device in control of the blocky avatar in the equal open international, with demanding situations much like what humans might also stumble upon in the real world. The AI will should research the fundamentals of "Minecraft," along with navigation, object interplay and advent, however there's potential for a lot greater complicated conduct, consistent with Microsoft. Human players have discovered "countless variety in gameplay," Hofmann stated, and research AIs will be put inside the equal situations.
The newest model also provides aid for chat interactions with the AI "player," in addition to the ability to overclock (speed up) the game, and consequently the pace of research, according to the developers.

'Snowfox' GPS phone enables parents maintain Tabs on young kids

a new, screenless telephone for younger kids could assist parents stay in contact with their children, with out the adults having to fear that their children are glued to smartphones.
the new device, known as Snowfox, additionally comes equipped with a GPS tracker, letting parents recognise wherein their children are, even as helping youngsters learn independence via permitting them to roam to places wherein they may be allowed.
the new "trackerphone" is a water-proof, 2 x 2-inch (five x 5 centimeters) square that comes in both pastel blue or crimson. It comes with a lanyard that permits it to be related to a key ring or carabiner hook.Snowfox's battery and occasional-strength electronics permit it operate for every week on a unmarried price, consistent with the enterprise. The tool can be recharged through a micro USB port.
A speaker and microphone allow -way telephone calls, and Snowfox's bendy antenna, which is hidden within a durable nylon tag, allows provide 3G and 2G provider.
The smartphone connects to a loose iPhone or Android app. The app can discover a unmarried infant, displaying his or her modern place and timeline of actions, as well as the battery level at the Snowfox. up to five guardians, along with dad and mom, grandparents and caretakers, can view a toddler's profile, the business enterprise stated.
The app also has a map view to show the region of all trackerphones related with the app. it could send alerts whilst kids have wandered in which they may be no longer authorised, and it could deliver notifications if they come or depart various locations.
every Snowfox includes an embedded SIM card, which comes with a nearby name-in quantity, making it ready for use right out of the container, the organisation said. limitless voice and statistics are available via a pay-as-you-move plan that prices about $10 per month.
there's just one button on Snowfox. to use it to make a call, the child presses the button, which sends a notification to all the listed guardians' smartphones. Any mother or father can then name the kid, who can answer the incoming call with the aid of urgent the button all over again. To make a call to a Snowfox smartphone, a parent or parent can dial its range or clearly use the app.
much less display screen time way that children could have greater time for play, said Ville Ylläsjärvi, a co-founding father of Haltian in Oulu, Finland, which designed and manufactures the device. Haltian's 80 or so employees are in the main former personnel of one-time cellular tool massive Nokia.
"I see way too many younger children with smartphones in recent times," Ylläsjärvi said. "simply looking around, you could see kids playing with their gadgets and no longer doing stuff youngsters need to be doing, like playing with buddies out of doors, being in social situations and additionally interacting with the world around you. There have been a couple of articles on kids stricken by not on time speech development, neck pains and posture improvement, which have been associated with excessive telephone usage at a completely younger age." [7 Ways to Short-Circuit Kids' Mobile Addiction]
Ylläsjärvi's family members use Snowfox. "For our circle of relatives, Snowfox Trackerphone has delivered a number of peace of thoughts," he said. "We have been capable of have our 6-yr-antique daughter to play out of doors within the garden and be notified nearly right away of her going to the playground round the corner."
"we have now additionally allowed her to go to a chum living a few homes down and have the ability to call her to come home," Ylläsjärvi stated. "Small however very significant things. i'm absolutely searching forward to her going to school subsequent year and being capable of be there for her and better within the understand of what she does."
devices that are similar to Snowfox encompass the GizmoPal from LG and the FiLIP from AT&T, however those come within the form of wristwatches, Ylläsjärvi said. "I assume our shape factor is extra flexible for every day use, permitting multiple manner for carrying," he said. "we've got also determined out that the wrist gadgets aren't as at ease to carry for the kid."
An Indiegogo crowdfunding marketing campaign for Snowfox commenced on June 28 and will remaining till Aug. four. up to now, the mission has raised more than $21,000 of its $50,000 intention. If the marketing campaign receives funded, Haltian pursuits to begin transport Snowfox to its backers in October.
Snowfox can be available in 10 countries to begin — the us, Canada, the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. extra international locations can be introduced in the course of the Indiegogo campaign, the business enterprise said. The device is already on sale in stores in Finland.

Oculus undertaking lets you experience in VR with out Gloves

Haptics are a occurring area in virtual fact nowadays. The time period refers to gadgets and technologies that produce tactile sensations to go along with all the ones immersive visuals and sounds.
The makers of the Oculus Rift, at the side of discern enterprise facebook, are running on a potential haptic add-directly to their digital fact headset. it's known as HapticWave, and it is sort of like a omnidirectional virtual truth glove, with out the glove. I swear — write approximately this stuff long sufficient and the entirety starts to sound like a Zen koan.
related: Flight Simulator gives hen's Eye View
according to an interesting document over at MIT generation review, the HapticWave device consists of a circular steel plate set atop a hoop of electromagnet actuators. positioned your hand within the middle of the disc and the tool transmits vibrations which might be synced up with what you're seeing and listening to through the Oculus Rift headset.
not like existing haptic gloves or different tactile tech techniques, the electromagnetic actuator technique can simulate vibrations coming in from particular instructions. So, as an example, you may sense the approach of a bouncing ball coming toward you on a tabletop.
additional sensors in the disc come across the location and movement of your hand, then ship that info again to the actuators for in addition adjustment. The frequency of the vibrations may be shifted to signify heavier or lighter digital objects interacting in digital space.
associated: Get Handsy with Haptic Tech
it would appear like there may be little practical use for this kind of device, aside from ping-pong spectator simulators. but the designers are noodling around with recreation layout ideas wherein your hand become a sort of tactile stand-in for the relaxation of your frame. shall we say a submit-apocalyptic wonderful mutant is sneaking up from in the back of. you can clearly feel the footfalls at the bottom of your palm.
From a certain perspective, it is in reality an interesting manner to turn the script on enter devices. in place of the usage of our fingers to send input to the machine, through a controller, the machine sends enter to us, through our fingers. Trippy. allow the Singularity start.
Demos of the HapticWave device could be rolled out at the approaching Siggraph convention in California later this month.

Shoe-sporting robotic's No Flatfoot — It Walks Like a person

A bipedal robot can now positioned its exceptional foot forward, stepping with a heel-toe motion that copies human locomotion more closely than flat-footed robot walkers can.
by way of rocking its "feet" ahead from the heel and pushing off on the toe, the DURUS robot closely imitates the taking walks movement of people, making it greater energy-efficient and better at navigating uneven terrain, according to Christian Hubicki, a postdoctoral fellow in robotics at the Georgia Institute of generation and one of the researchers who helped DURUS locate its footing.
more advantageous taking walks skills ought to help robots navigate environments that humans pass round in, and will enhance the overall performance of bots created for disaster response, Hubicki told live science.
The humanoid robot DURUS become designed collaboratively by using the research nonprofit SRI global and Georgia Tech's advanced Mechanical Bipedal Experimental Robotics (AMBER) Lab. An earlier DURUS layout changed into changed to house the new manner of strolling, enabled through a unique mathematical set of rules that adjusts the robot's momentum and balance, one step at a time.
Robots that walk on  legs usually have "feet" which can be big and flat, to offer a greater strong platform, Hubicki
"bigger ft imply a larger polygon of guide, and the tougher it's far to fall," Hubicki said.
The algorithms that dictate a robot's ahead momentum normally hold the ones large toes flat at the floor while pushing off, to decrease the chance that the bot will tip over.
"As quickly as you lean on an side, you are like a pendulum — on a pivot point that may fall ahead or backward," Hubicki stated.
but whilst a flat-footed walker might perform well on a treadmill, uneven terrain in the real world that does not accommodate a flat foot ought to confound the set of rules and prevent a robotic in its tracks.
enter the AMBER Lab researchers, who designed a brand new set of rules that works to hold a robotic upright and shifting ahead even supposing most effective components of the foot are engaged. Hubicki and his colleagues examined DURUS the use of a modified foot with an arch; every step started out with the heel making touch — the "heel strike," in keeping with Hubicki — after which rolling to the ball of the foot to push off from the floor. Springs installed by means of the robotic's ankles act like tendons, storing the heel strike's power to be launched later, as elevate.
"We wanted to reveal that our algorithms should make it walk with human-size toes," Hubicki stated. "What higher way to do this than [by] setting shoes on it?"
The set of rules can also actually have programs past robotics, Hubicki added, suggesting that it can be used to enhance the layout of prosthetics and exoskeletons to help individuals who use assistance to get around.

Iris Scans to replace Fingerprints

FBI officers have scanned the irises of nearly 460,000 people in a pilot program that may soon replace fingerprints. even as iris-scanning technology has been around for extra than 25 years, it's just now attending to in which it is speedy, easy and relatively trojan horse-loose.
"it's a powerful biometric," stated Patrick Grother, a computer scientist on the national Institute of standards and technology in Gaithersburg, Md., who has been growing algorithms and software program for iris scanning. "it's rapid to method, it has discriminative electricity -- my iris does not seem like your iris, and it has reasonable permanence."
associated: Iris Scanner Identifies a person forty toes Away
Iris scanning has changed retinal scans, a way that has been pretty a great deal abandoned since it became out to be uncomfortable for people to endure, Grother explained. Iris scan technology became featured currently inside the AMC mini-collection " The night time supervisor," based on a John LeCarre secret agent novel. The lead person used an iris experiment digicam on his smartphone to get entry to his Swiss bank account (simply before a massive truck blew up).
Grother says that type of short reading potential is not a long way away, and numerous banks are searching at using it. home windows' Lumia Nokia and Fujitsu each have iris scanners to liberate their telephones, (much like the iPhone fingerprint pad) but it is not prepared to authenticate different sorts of apps or money owed.
Iris scanning cameras may be hand-held or attached to a wall. they are powerful from 3 to six toes far from the issue's eyes. infantrymen in Iraq had been the use of them to authenticate Iraqi civilians who are authorized to work internal U.S. army centers.
The iris is a part of the attention outside of the student this is fabricated from collagen in a three-dimensional association. This pattern may be imaged with mild at sure wavelengths.
"it is like taking photo of sand dunes from area," he stated. "it's a three-D item."
The FBI's Iris Pilot software is being deployed by means of police officers in California, Texas and Missouri throughout the booking procedure. The U.S. Border Patrol and branch of protection also are using iris scans, according to Stephen Fischer, an FBI spokesman.
the subsequent step is gathering iris scans from photos of humans's eyes.
associated: The Eyes Have It: university Adopts Iris Scans
"Iris pics enrolled inside the FBI Iris Pilot are normally captured all through the booking manner in a controlled putting with a camera designed to seize the iris picture," Fischer stated in an e mail to DNews. "these cameras seize the iris image in close to-infrared light. research is currently being carried out at the extraction of iris images from high-decision photos."
humans with brown eyes have more pigment than those with blue eyes, said Grother. That makes it harder to seize iris records from snap shots of brown-eyed parents.
Of direction, absolutely everyone who blinks, squints or scrunches up their eyes will make it tough for regulation enforcement to get a very good scan.
Grother and other specialists now are developing software to recognize iris patterns from several one of a kind camera angles, making it easier to use a handheld tool or phone.